to Spain and Portugal 320 and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies. 180 This sacrament, known as Anointing of the Sick, is believed to give comfort, peace, courage and, if the sick person is unable to make a confession, even forgiveness of sins. 136 Further teachings include the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the Assumption of Mary (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). 264 Efforts in support of the ordination of women to the priesthood led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or Popes against the proposal, as in Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (1976 Mulieris Dignitatem (1988) and. 377 John Paul II Main article: Pope John Paul II In 1978, Pope John Paul II, formerly Archbishop of Kraków in the Polish People's Republic, became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. 262 Holy orders and women Main articles: Ordination of women in the Catholic Church and Women in the Catholic Church Women and men religious engage in a variety of occupations, from contemplative prayer, to teaching, to providing health care, to working as missionaries. Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the church's worldwide health and education service networks. He then gifted the lands of the former exarchate to the pope, thus initiating the Papal States.